What is configuration management?

The hardware and software required to provide IT services are called Configuration Items (CIs). Configuration management is an effort to accurately manage configuration item (CI) information and dependencies between configuration items.

There are two main types of component items: physical assets and documents.

 

Configuration item (CI) example

物理資産

ハードウェア

ソフトウェア

ネットワークコンポーネント など

文書

契約書

ライセンス

運用マニュアル

仕様書

設計書

ベンダー情報

SLA など

 

What is CMDB

In configuration management, information on these configuration items is aggregated and managed in a CMDB (Configuration Management Database).

CMDB is a database for managing configuration items and their dependencies. In Japanese, it is called a configuration management database.

CMDB is used not only for configuration management, but also for running other processes on the service desk. For example, in change management, when a change request is made, it is necessary to identify the extent of impact when the system is changed. this time, the latest CI information is visualized by CMDB, so that the range of impact of service provision on the system can be quickly identified.

CMDB is the database that underlies key processes such as incident management  , problem management  , change management  , release management , and deployment management.

Difference between configuration management and asset management

When you think of "managing hardware and software," you probably think of IT asset management . The difference between IT asset management and configuration management is the purpose of management.

 

Asset management manages items for the purpose of optimizing financial and accounting processing. Configuration management, on the other hand, manages items for the purpose of optimizing IT services. Therefore, there are differences in management methods and management targets.


CMDBによる構成管理
資産管理

目的

ITサービスの最適化

財務・経理処理の最適化

管理単位

複数アイテムになる場合もある

必ず1アイテムごとに管理

管理項目

一意の識別子 / CIタイプ/名前・説明/場所/提供日/ライセンス情報/オーナー/ステータス/サプライヤー情報/関連文書/関連ソフトウェア/監査証跡当のデータ/リレーション情報/ SLA など

名称/資産区分/機器種別/ベンダー名/シリアルNo./使用者/使用部門/管理番号/管理者/管理部門/設置場所/スペック/購入日 など

For example, suppose your company buys 10 desktop PCs and 10 monitors each.

In this case, asset management identifies and manages desktop PCs and monitors individually. There are a total of 20 items, including 10 desktop PCs and 10 monitors. Many companies will manage each one by attaching a sticker with the asset management number printed on it. In asset management, which optimizes accounting processes such as depreciation, all IT assets are individually identified and managed.

Configuration management, on the other hand, does not mean that each item is managed individually. For example, if there is a provision to "manage desktop PCs and monitors as a set", 10 sets of desktop PCs and monitors are managed as one CI. In this way, CMDB configuration management may manage two or more IT assets as one CI.

Configuration management in ITIL

 

Configuration management in ITILv3 / ITIL2011

Configuration management in ITILv3 / ITIL2011 is defined as one of the main processes of service transitions as "Service Assets and Configuration Management".

サービス戦略
(Service Strategy)
サービス設計
(Service Design)
サービス移行
(Service Transition)
サービス運用
(Service Operation)
継続的サービス改善
(Continual Service Improvement)

財務管理

サービスカタログ管理

変更管理

イベント管理

7ステップ改善

需要管理

サービスレベル管理

サービス資産および構成管理

インシデント管理

サービス測定

サービスポートフォリオ管理

キャパシティ管理

ナレッジ管理

リクエスト対応

サービスレポート


可用性管理

移行計画及び支援

アクセス管理



ITサービス継続性管理

リリース及びデプロイ管理

問題管理



情報セキュリティ管理

サービスバリデーション及びテスト

サービスデスク



サプライヤ管理

評価

技術管理





アプリケーション管理





ITオペレーション管理


 

Change management in ITIL v4

In ITILv4, configuration management is defined as a practice called "service configuration management".

"Practice" is a new concept introduced in ITIL v4 that replaces the "process" in ITIL v3 / 2011. "Processes" such as incident management   / problem management  / knowledge management and "functions" such as service desks are now referred to as " practices "in ITILv4.

ITILv4 has 34 practices. The ITILv4 practice group is divided into three types: "general management practice", "service management practice", and "technical management practice". Among them, service configuration management is classified as "service management practice".

一般管理プラクティス
(General Management Practices)
サービス管理プラクティス.
(Service Management Practices)
技術管理プラクティス
(Technical Management Practices)

アーキテクチャ管理

可用性管理

展開管理

継続的改善

事業分析

インフラストラクチャとプラットフォーム管理

情報セキュリティ管理

キャパシティとパフォーマンス管理

ソフトウェアの開発と管理

ナレッジ管理

変更コントロール


測定とレポート

インシデント管理


組織の変更管理

IT 資産管理


ポートフォリオ管理

モニタリングとイベント管理


プロジェクト管理

問題管理


関係管理

リリース管理


リスク管理

サービスカタログ管理


サービス財務管理

サービス構成管理


戦略管理

サービス評価とテスト


サプライヤ管理

サービス継続性管理


人材管理

サービスデザイン



サービスデスク



サービスレベル管理



サービスリクエスト管理


Two challenges in implementing configuration management

(1)CMDBの更新

There is a limit to manually updating the CMDB by information system personnel. If the data in the CMDB continues to be out of date, the configuration management itself becomes a mere ghost.

For example, change management involves the process of assessing the extent of impact on a system (evaluating and planning changes) before actually making changes to the system. At this time, if the CMDB information remains out of date, it will not be possible to correctly identify other systems that are at risk of change or are affected.

(2)他のプロセスとの連携

Configuration management is the underlying concept of other processes. Therefore, its true value is realized only in cooperation with other processes. If there is no mechanism for linking configuration management with other processes, you will have to go back and forth between the tools that manage each.

For example, ITIL incident management requires an investigation into the extent of impact before responding to a system failure. However, at this time, if the configuration management tool (CMDB) and the incident management tool are not linked, even if the system failure affects other systems, the configuration management tool will not automatically alert. ..

Smart configuration management with ITSMS

ITSMS (ITSM Tool) solves configuration management issues smartly. ITSMS is a tool that effectively manages the IT services provided by the service desk. Most ITSMSs have features that support configuration management.

(1)構成情報の自動作成・更新

With ITSMS, the configuration information can be automatically registered in the system by the automatic detection function provided in the software. Information system personnel are freed from the hassle of registering with the CMDB and manually updating modified text each time they purchase a new device.

(2)サービスデスクプロセスとの連携

Some tools support the integration of CMDB with processes such as incident management and change management . Information systems personnel can quickly and accurately identify the relevant CI and scope of impact and take the next action, if needed.

Easy configuration management with Freshservice

Automatically detect configuration information

Freshservice can automatically detect CI information and dependency information between CIs. The discovery probe automatically identifies all assets in your company and scans for new hardware and software. You can also set a schedule and update asset information on a regular basis.

Coordinate with the main service desk process

Freshservice can link CMDB with processes such as incident management and change management. When providing IT services, it is possible to smoothly identify the range of influence of the system.

From the screen of each process, it is also possible to check the item information constructed by CMDB and the dependency between items.